Man is curious about nature and also interested to watch what is happening in his surrounding nature. Once we look at the sky at night time we can find it is a wonder, volcanoes, mountains, different annual seasons, solar system, rainbow, etc all these have always been a source of wonder. The world has an variety of materials and imaginative human mind has responded to the wonder and awe of nature indifferent ways.
The word science is originated from the Latin verb Scientia, which means ‘to know’.
This science has different definition,
- According to Bruce Lindsay ,Science is a method for describing, creating and understanding human experience.
- According to Albert Einstein, Science is not just a collection of laws, a catalogue of unrelated facts. It is a creation of human mind, with its freely invented ideas and concepts.
- Systematic study to understand the natural phenomena in detail and depth as possible.
- It is a method of gaining knowledge through observations and experiments when it organized systematically.
- Science is exploring, experimenting and predicting from what we see around us.
- It is a study of nature.
WHAT IS PHYSICS?
The word physics is comes from a Greek word “ fusis ” which means “nature”.
Physics is a branch of science in which deals with the study of nature and natural phenomena.
Again there are different branches in physics, Astronomy is the science to study about the moon, the planets, the stars, and the universe beyond the stars. Similarly chemistry, bio chemistry, geophysics, biophysics.
Scope of Physics:
The two domains in physics are:
Macroscopic domain: it is the study of the phenomena which involves the finite size of objects in terrestrial and astronomical scale. Classical physics deals with macroscopic phenomena and it includes the subjects like Mechanics, optics, Electrodynamics.
Microscopic domain: It is the study of the phenomena which involves molecules, atoms, nuclei, electrons and other elementary particles. This makes up Modern Physics and Quantum Theory is currently accepted as proper framework for explaining microscopic phenomena.
Physics and Technology
The applications of physics and plays very important role in the development of technology of any society. Technology is the application of the principles of Physics for practical purpose. Today we can see the application of physics is everywhere in our daily life. The television, radio, mobile phone all these uses the electromagnetic waves for the purpose of propagation. Heat and thermodynamics which is one of the initiator of the industrial revolution. The small ‘silicon chip’ that has triggered the computer revolution. From all these it is clear that physics has a great role in the development of technology and in our daily lives.
Fundamental Forces in Nature
We know that physics is a phenomena of study of nature and natural phenomena. So we have discuss about the nature of fundamental forces and fundamental laws.
In our daily experiences force is needed to push or pull, carry or throw objects, required to move a body or to stop a moving body, deform or break the body.
There are four fundamental forces in nature.
- Gravitational Force
- Electromagnetic Force
- Strong Nuclear Force
- Weak Nuclear Force
Gravitational force is the force of attraction between exist between the microscopic as well as the macroscopic body by virtue of their masses.
These forces are weakest force in nature. Since every object has some mass therefore gravitational force is universal force. It is a mutual attraction between the objects at all distances. For example: The revolution of earth and other artificial satellites around the earth is attracted by the gravity of earth.
The magnitude of this force is given by Newton’s law of Gravitation
F = GM1M2/R2 where M1 and M2 be the masses of two bodies and r be the distance between the centers of two bodies. G is constant called Gravitational Constant and has the value
Forces between charged particles are called electromagnetic force. We know that in Electrostatics (charges are at rest) two unlike charges are attracts and two like charges are repels and the force is given by Coulomb’s Law. The magnitude of the electrostatic force F is given by:
q1 and q2 be the two static charges and r is the distance between charges.
As we know gravity is always attractive, but in electromagnetic force can be attractive or repulsive. That is why mass comes in one variety means there is no negative mass and charge comes in two variety means positive and negative charges in nature.
Weak Nuclear Force
This weak nuclear force is not as weak as gravitational force but much weaker than strong nuclear force and electromagnetic force. The weak nuclear forces are 1025 times stronger than gravitational force.
Strong Nuclear Force:
Strong nuclear force binds the neutrons and protons together in a nucleus.
This force is strongest force in nature and it is charge independent. Nuclear force is short range force it operate within the nucleus up to distance of the order of 10-14 m.
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